It was used since very earliest times and it is made traditionally by charring desiccated grape vines and stems.
Manufacturer / product code: Kremer / 47000
Chemical description: made by heating wood, or other plant material, with a very restricted air supply. Kremer PDF
Color Index: PBk8
More info: Pigments Through The Ages
DOWNLOAD paper: “Pigments Checker version 3.0, a handy set for conservation scientists: A free online Raman spectra database”
DOWNLOAD paper: “FORS spectral database of historical pigments in different binders”